Your Brain on Advertisements

Advertisers are always looking to better understand consumers’ preferences and decision making. The application of neuroscience knowledge and techniques to answer market and media research questions is not new but in our digital age, the practice raises new questions about privacy, informed consent, and consumer autonomy in decision making. Dr. Carl Marci, Chief Neuroscientist at Nielsen explores the ethical concerns that arise and explains some of the tools used by advertisers in this growing field.

Watch My Brain Made Me Buy It: The Neuroethics of Advertising – Exploring Ethics

What Happened When Modern Humans Met Neanderthals?

In short, they interbred, according to Svante Pääbo, a Swedish biologist and pioneer of paleogenetics, the study of preserved genetic material from the remains of ancient organisms, including ancient human DNA. He has served as director of the Department of Evolutionary Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, since 1997.

He explains in this lecture that Neanderthals and Denisovans have a common ancestor in Africa. About half a million years ago, these species of humans came out of Africa and evolved into what we call Neanderthals in Western Eurasia and Denisovans in Eastern Eurasia. Much later modern humans appeared in Africa and then spread, initially to the Middle East, then to Eurasia where they encountered Neanderthals and Denisovans. Eventually, those earlier species became extinct, replaced by modern humans.

Pääbo’s lab famously retrieved and sequenced ancient Neanderthal DNA and produced a high-quality genome sequence that allowed for the reconstruction of the recent evolutionary history of our species. Once the genome was sequenced and studied it became apparent that ancient and modern humans interbred. In fact, most present-day humans have some Neanderthal DNA.

Svante Pääbo’s was selected by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the UC San Diego as the recipient of the 2018 Nierenberg Prize for Science in the Public Interest. He gave this fascinating lecture on that occasion.

Watch A Neanderthal Perspective on Human Origins with Svante Pääbo – 2018 Nierenberg Prize for Science in the Public Interest

Foundations for Future Health Care Providers: Pharmacology

Have you always dreamed about being a doctor? Maybe you find the way the body works really fascinating or you feel compelled to help others.

Well, we’ve got a series for you! Take a look at the new series, Foundations for Future Health Care Providers.

Medical school can be tough, but you can get ahead of the curve with these programs designed to teach you the fundamental concepts of medicine.

UCSD-TV gives you a sneak peek of your first year at medical school with these videos from faculty at UCSF. Learn the basics of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology in the Foundations for Future Health Care Providers series.

Check out this program from the series all about pharmacology.

Antibiotics are a common type of prescription drug used to combat bacterial infections in the body. However, the effectiveness of these drugs is diminishing as more and more of these infectious bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

In “Pharmacology: Bugs and Drugs, Part 1,” Marieke Kruidering Hall, Associate Professor in the Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology at UCSF, explains that this can be related to incidents when people are prescribed antibiotics, but don’t finish taking all of the prescribed drug.

People will feel better and think they don’t need to keep taking the antibiotic. Although the symptoms of the infection are gone, some bacteria remain and by not completing that antibiotic, people allow those remaining bacteria to survive the antibiotic. Those remaining bacteria multiply, therefore creating a strain of bacteria that is able to survive the treatment of antibiotics.

See what else Kruidering Hall has to say about the way antiviral, antimicrobial, and antifungal drugs work differently within the body, in “Pharmacology: Bugs and Drugs, Part 1.”

Explore other videos in the Foundations for Future Health Care Providers series!

Evolution and Creationism as Science and Myth

Myths symbolize ideas, values, history and other issues that are important to a people. They may be true or false, mundane or fantastic; their significance is their meaning, not their narrative content.

Science is a way of knowing about the natural world. Its conclusions tentatively may be true or false, but its significance is its explanatory power: one has confidence in the process of science, even though some explanations change over time.

Myth and science thus seem very different, but each has been utilized by proponents of both sides of the Christian creationism and evolution controversy. Understanding this role is essential in comprehending (much less mediating) this persistent conflict.

Eugenie C. Scott served as the executive director of the National Center for Science Education, an organization that works to keep publicly (though not scientifically) controversial topics like evolution and climate change in the public schools. Her work has involved a mixture of science, communication, religion, education, law, and community activism.

Watch Evolution and Creationism as Science and Myth

Why Do People Reject Good Science?

Many people will consider factual information and it will change their understanding. But there are some for whom, “Providing more, accurate information doesn’t seem to change their opinions or make them alter their erroneous views,” says Eugenie Scott, Founding Executive Director of National Center for Science Education. For example, Americans have a much lower incidence of acceptance of evolution than people in any other developed country in the world. The same is true about the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change, despite the scientific evidence for both.

What explains this knowledge resistance?

We all view factual information through a filter of ideology, values, and group identification but these filters often make ideas very resistant to change because they prevent us from looking dispassionately at empirical evidence, facts and logic. Scott explores what drives knowledge resistance and what can break it down.

Eugenie C. Scott served as the executive director of the National Center for Science Education, an organization that works to keep publicly (though not scientifically) controversial topics like evolution and climate change in the public schools. Her work has involved a mixture of science, communication, religion, education, law, and community activism.

Watch Why Do People Reject Good Science?